Diabetes Simplified

What is diabetes? Diabetes Mellitus has become an epidemic. The World Health Organization estimates that as many as 346 million people suffer from diabetes worldwide. Diabetes can be prevented, even brought under control by proper diet and medications but Diabetes becomes highly fatal if one ignores it. Diabetes compromises our immune system that can lead to various persistent infections, forms atherosclerosis(fatty deposits in blood vessels) which can cause Hypertension(High BP), Angina(Chest pain that  resides on resting) and even Myocardial Infarction(Heart Attack) as well as causes hyperglycemia(increase in blood glucose level) which can cause brain hemorrhages, coma, etc.

What are the causes of diabetes?

The first thing whenever someone thinks about or remains always curious to know is what causes the diabetes. Diabetes is causes due to deficiency of a hormone(chemicals that regulates our internal systems) named “insulin” which is produced by pancreas. Insulin helps in the proper utilization of glucose and checks the glucose level in our blood. Well, trust me the complete mechanism of the diabetes is yet to be understood completely but there are certain entities which has been found common among the patients and many scientists have also proved their association with the Diabetes. They are:
  • Heredity: Well if your parents, or grandparents had them, you are at high risk but never means you are ought to have it. Apart from your genetic predisposition, you must trigger other risk factors too. It’s like heredity provides fertile soil for Diabetes and other risk factors plant seeds on it.

  • Obesity: Fat interferes with the regulation of insulin and thus poses high risk for Diabetes

  • Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of exercise impairs proper mobilization of glucose and insulin

  • Viral Infections: This has been incompletely understood but they have been found associated with juvenile (childhood or young) diabetes.

Diabetes Symptoms

Symptoms in most of the cases of early Diabetes are mild and they get discovered accidentally during patient’s blood analysis for some other conditions. But there are some distinguishing symptoms that makes a doctor think the patient is possibly suffering from diabetes to order blood sugar analysis test.  
Diabetes Mellitus is marked by a triad of frequent urination, abnormally great thirst and increased hunger. Apart from that the patient might feel weakness, malaise, vision disturbances and has some other not so clear and defining symptoms.

Whenever a doctor suspects diabetes Mellitus, he is going to ask you to do a blood sugar analysis. The diagnostic criteria for Diabetes according to WHO is:
  1. A fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/100ml,
  2. A random plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/100ml
  3. 2-hour plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/100ml after having 75 gm glucose
  4. A glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level ≥ 5%
diabetes simplified


Can diabetes be prevented? 


Absolutely yes! In most of the cases the diabetes can be prevented by improving the lifestyle. Eating of huge amount of fats and red meat high calories foods such as sugar, junk foods, etc. should be stopped. Exercise plays the most vital role in prevention as well as curbing with the complications of Diabetes. In case you get Diabetes, don’t worry people have survived for more than 50 years under proper lifestyle and medicines.

References:
  1. Robbins and Cotran's Pathologic Basis of Diseases
  2. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine

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